Exnora Green Pammal

Solid Waste Management

Introduction to waste

  • Growth of population in the modern world, Increasing migration, urbanization and improving standards of living contributed to increase waste generated by various activities. Most of the waste generated from urban area, Industrial areas. It can classify municipal waste, Plastics, biomass waste and biomedical waste.

Urban waste

  • Households waste, Commercial actives – waste arising from mining, Construction , Municipal Solid Waste, Sewage and Fecal Sludge

Industrial Waste

  • Solid and Semi solid waste, Liquid waste, Gaseous waste, and other waste material etc.

Biomass waste

  • Biomass waste is defined as biomass by products, residues and waste streams from agriculture, forestry, and related industries.

Medical waste

  • Waste Generated at health care facilities, such as hospital, Blood banks as well as medical research facilities and laboratories.


  • Exnora Green Pammal provides waste management services in Pammal (Tamil Nadu) Mangadu (Tamil Nadu) DAE townships of Kalpakkam, Anupuram and Bhavini (Tamil Nadu), Sangareddy (Andera Pradesh) Panipet (Hariyana) and Kolkatha


  • Segregation
  • Composting
  • Recycling
  • Upcycling


The collaboration between Exnora Green Pammal, residents, municipal authorities and PepsiCo India Region has made Pammal Municipality a role model for solid waste management, and an award winning example of Public Private Partnership. 

Pammal is a third grade municipality with 21 wards and a population of approximately 1,00,000, located 17 km from Chennai. The area of Pammal is 14 sq. km. There are 538 streets (length – 72 km), 1,028 business establishments and 228 factories. Read how Exnora Green Pammal started on our Since 2006, EGP has been contracted by the municipality to collect, transport and process solid waste from all of Pammal’s 21 wards. Some of the contract’s provisions are listed below:

The municipality pays the expenses including salaries on submission of a bill every month. The following terms were specified by the municipality in the MOU.

EGP pays for minor repairs in the vehicles 

The trucks required for transportation of waste will be provided by the municipality. The municipality will also arrange for alternate truck facilities if the allocated.

Trucks are under repair or sent for obtaining fitness certificate. Incase such alternate facilities are not provided EGP will engage alternate truck facilities and claim

EGP pays the rent for these facilities

EGP should use own funds for the fuel expenses of the trucks.

The municipality will provide drums for storing segregated waste collected.

The door to door collection and source segregation activity should be carried out by EGP on Sundays as well as government holidays.

The organic waste should be processed at the vermicomposting unit. Both organic and inorganic waste should be deposited in the space allocated by the municipality. The waste should not be deposited in any other space other than the allocated space.

The employees appointed by EGP should be provided uniforms, protective gloves, footwear, raincoats and soap by EGP.

The push carts and cycle rickshaws could be parked within the compound of the water tank in Sankar Nagar. It is the responsibility of EGP to safeguard the vehicles. In addition to door-to-door collection of garbage, the workers should also sweep the streets so that ‘garbage free’ concept is established in a phased manner. 

The salary of the workers could be listed and a detailed bill could be submitted to the municipality and the same would be paid by the municipality. The daily wages for the workers will be determined on the basis of the allocated expenditure by the District Collector.

Water for cleaning waste collection drums will be provided by the municipality. The drums for storing waste should be cleaned everyday and maintained by EGP in a clean manner. The activity of obtaining waste through door-to-door collection should be ascertained by obtaining signatures from residents in the area.

On expiry of the MOU date the vehicles and drums provided by the municipality should be returned in good condition.

The Executive Officer of the municipality has the right to cancel the MOU if there is a violation of the rules of the municipality or the rules specified in the MOU.
EGP should not collect any user fee from the households for collection of waste. If user fee is collected in violation of this criteria, the Executive Officer has the right to cancel the MOU without prior intimation.

The municipality will not undertake any responsibility if the employees meet with any accidents while on duty.

If EGP stops the implementation of the activity before the expiry of the MOU period, the MOU would be made with another agency.

The municipality is liable to collect the losses from EGP in this case and EGP cannot claim to any right under the MOU after this.

EGP will undertake minor repairs to the vehicles while all major repairs will be undertaken by the municipality. The fitness certificates for the vehicles will be obtained by the municipality.

The sanitary inspector of the municipality will take stock of the vehicles, drums and other items and certify the same on a monthly basis. The municipal administration should aim for a garbage free municipality by 31.8.2006 so that all dust bins should be removed and the municipality should be a ‘dust bin-free’ one.

The support provided by the municipality for the activity includes

  • Tricycles – 70
  • Collecting carriers – Three
  • Power tiller – One
  • Tractors – Two

Service fee of 95 paise per household per day. The 95 paise accounts for:

  • Door to door collection of waste
  • Transportation of waste collected to the compost yard
  • Processing of organic waste into manure and segregation of recyclable materials

The municipality allocated land for the construction of a vermicompost facility and waste processing sheds. Construction of buildings was sponsored by PepsiCo India Region, and a compound wall and pucca road were provided by the municipality.

Partnership Structure: Roles and Responsibilities

Exnora Green Pammal – collection of waste and street sweeping, transport and processing of waste, educating the community about waste management

PepsiCo – sponsorship for infrastructure and provision of some equipment Pammal Municipality – fee payment to Exnora Green Pammal, provision of land, provision of transport vehicles.


The Biogas Project

In order to demonstrate the concept of waste recycling and better utilization of municipal solid waste management a pilot waste to energy plant has been installed with indigenous technology and machinery supplied by a Kerala entrepreneur. The technology adopted is a low cost biomethanisation technology which is eco friendly and sustainable. Biogas is being generated from kitchen waste which in turn is converted to electricity using a 100% biogas engine which is sufficient to light up 50 street lights. The slurry which is generated after biomethanisation is a useful end product which is being used as good source of organic manure. Electrical energy produced is clean and green energy which can complement the conventional energy thereby reducing pollution. The excess biogas produced is being used as a clean fuel in the canteen and it is replacing LPG. Such initiatives of EGP will help many institutions to scale up and this is being modeled as a business /entrepreneur unit which can be easily replicated. The strength of this project is the ease with which it can be replicated and can be managed with very limited manpower and with little or no maintenance involved. 

Decomposing garbage in dumpsites is estimated to produce a third of India’s climate changing methane gas. By collecting kitchen waste and processing it in a Biogas digester, we capture gas that would otherwise warm the climate.

Exnora Green Pammal’s initiative can bring about effective partnership between the Foundation and several institutions like the Commercial Canteens, Big Hotels, Hostels, Eating Houses, etc where waste disposal is not only a problem but a nuisance too. The Biogas facility was inaugurated in September 2010 and was well attended and received wide media coverage.


EPNS Members

Located approximately 90 km north of New Delhi, Panipat has a population of approximately 3,00,000. Panipat is a major producer of textiles, with exports worth 2,500 crore.



After seeing Exnora Green Pammal’s impact and performance in Pammal, PepsiCo asked Exnora to initiate similar services in Panipat, Haryana, where a PepsiCo plant is located. In May 2006, PepsiCo invited Exnora International’s founder, Mr. M. B. Nirmal, to Panipat to discuss introducing services there. In November 2006, Ms. Mangalam Balasubramanian visited Panipat and held more detailed discussions with officials, residents and representatives of PepsiCo. She found that the district administration and the Panipat municipal engineer were eager to initiate door-to-door waste collection.


Although waste management is a responsibility of the Panipat municipality, many residents hired private waste collectors because collection by the understaffed municipality was irregular. Residents report that private collectors dumped domestic waste at intersections and in Panipat’s neighborhood parks. Animals rummaged through the heaps of rubbish, and waste was scattered by wind, and often burned. According to the president of a residents’ welfare association (RWA), Panipat’s neighborhoods used to look very shabby.

In March 2007, Mr. N. K. Jindal, Panipat’s municipal engineer, and a team of junior engineers visited Pammal to become familiar with the new system. Panipat has a network of RWAs, which maintain Panipat’s neighborhood parks. To strengthen local ownership of the new, door-to-door waste management services, RWA leaders created an NGO, Exnora Panipat Navnirman Samiti (EPNS), which helps to administer services by educating residents, collecting user fees from the households and paying green ambassadors. In April 2007, EPNS signed a memorandum of understanding with EGP, formalizing their partnership.

An awareness campaign, involving rallies and public meetings in the parks, commenced in June 2007 to educate residents about door-to-door collection and source segregation of waste. Representatives from the RWAs, EGP, EPNS, PepsiCo and the municipal and district administrations participated actively in the campaign. Red and green wastebaskets were distributed to all homes and shops.

The municipality identified a three-acre site on the edge of town for construction of compost sheds and a dump yard. PepsiCo provided funds to lease the land and sponsored construction of the necessary buildings with 80 vermicomposting tanks. In town, the municipality allocated an office for the project management unit.

Services were launched in November 2007. Door-to-door waste collection has dramatically improved the cleanliness of participating neighborhoods, inspiring neighboring residents to invite EPNS to extend services to their areas. The number of homes covered has increased from 3,000 to 10,000 in two years.

Partnership Structure: Roles and Responsibilities Panipat Municipality – identified land for the compost sheds and dumpsite, allocated office space for the project management unit, laid the access road from the highway to the compost sheds and dumpsite, provides transport vehicles, push carts, tools and tackle, and red and green dust bins for every residence.

PepsiCo – sponsors the project management unit, the awareness campaign, staff training and uniforms, operating costs, and a consultancy fee to EGP. PepsiCo also sponsored construction of the compost sheds, and pays the rent for land for the dumpsite and compost sheds.

EGP – provided technical assistance in setting up the SWM system in Panipat, trained EPNS, and provided professional guidance for management, training and shed construction.

EPNS – collects user fees, pays green ambassadors and encourages residents to sort their waste.

Residents – pay the prescribed monthly user fee of between Rs 20 and Rs 40 per house, according to income level, and segregate their waste. Shops pay Rs 50 per month. Small hospitals pay Rs 100 per month. Large hospitals pay Rs 200 per month, and schools pay Rs 500 per month.

Department of Atomic Energy Townships

Kalpakkam, Anupuram and Bhavini


The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) townships of Kalpakkam, Anupuram and Bhavini have approximately 30,000 residents who work in atomic energy production and research facilities operated by the Indian government. The townships occupy 870 acres, approximately 60 kilometers south of Chennai.




Ms. Balasubramanian was invited by the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) to initiate solid waste management in Kalpakkam, Anupuram and Bhavini after she delivered a lecture at Kalpakkam in 2006. Finalizing the contract and preparations took several months. Staff were recruited primarily from neighboring fishing communities. 


Previously, waste management services in the townships were contracted to private parties that collected waste from community bins and transported it to a dumpsite. According to residents, the previous services were performed irregularly, leaving neighborhoods very dirty.

Now the townships’ waste is transported to Exnora Green Pammal’s 3,000 square-foot vermicompost shed situated at Natham Kariacheri Village, eight km from Kalpakkam, and to a dumpsite leased by EGP. In addition to collecting waste from 6,000 residences, EGP also collects waste from six schools, six office buildings, three marriage halls, two hotels, 15 shops and tea stalls, and the bus stand. EGP is also responsible for keeping the entire open area of the townships free of litter.


Partnership Structure: Roles and Responsibilities

  • EGP – responsible for all aspects of solid waste management in the townships. 

    The DAE townships – pay the fees according to a contract with EGP and monitor EGP’s performance.

    PepsiCo – provided a bank guarantee so that EGP could get an advance from the IGCAR to star.t

  • Residents – segregate their waste




Mangadu town panchayat is famous for its large Kamatchi Amman temple, which is a pilgrimage destination. Mangadu is approximately 20 km from Chennai, near Poonamallee. The town’s population is approximately 40,000.



Ms. Balasubramanian was invited by the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) to initiate solid waste management in Kalpakkam, Anupuram and Bhavini after she delivered a lecture at Kalpakkam in 2006. Finalizing the contract and preparations took several months. Staff were recruited primarily from neighboring fishing communities. 

In January 2009, Mr. Ravikumar, a resident of Pammal, was posted as the executive officer in Mangadu town panchayat. Impressed by the work of EGP around his own home in Pammal, Mr. Ravikumar invited EGP to manage solid waste in Mangadu. Meetings were held to work out a partnership between EGP and Mangadu town panchayat, tag heuer replica and a resident awareness campaign commenced. 

Collection services were launched in February 2009. Initially, door-to-door collection covered three wards. Coverage increased to seven wards by the end of 2009. The present EO of Mangadu, Mr. N. Ravi, expects that all 18 wards of the town will be covered by EGP by June 2010. 

In Mangadu, the costs of waste management services are shared between the panchayat, residents and PepsiCo. Residents pay a monthly user fee of Rs 20 per house. The panchayat has used grants to construct a storage shed and a vermicomposting facility with 10 tanks.


Partnership Structure: Roles and Responsibilities

EGP – provides labour, technical guidance, monitoring, shed maintenance and managerial staff 
Mangadu Town Panchayat – provides tricycles, a truck, facilities, a pump for the compost shed, and an executive order for EEGP to operate.
PepsiCo – contributed Rs 1,50,000 to support processing costs, the awareness campaign, supervisor’s salary and monitoring.
Residents – pay a monthly user fee of Rs 20 per house and segregate their waste.


Cuddalore, Nagapattinam and Tenkasi

Shortly after the December 2004 Tsunami, the PepsiCo Foundation contacted EGP and asked how the Foundation could assist in the recovery of tsunami-affected communities. After discussing the options, it was decided that EGP and PepsiCo would replicate EGP’s solid waste management model patek philippe replica in Cuddalore, Nagapattinam and Kanyakumari. However, difficulties encountered in Kanyakumari led us to shift that project to Tenkasi. 

These projects operate in partnership with the Cuddalore, Nagapattinam and Tenkasi municipalities. In Cuddalore, the project is managed by Mr. R. M. Balasubramanian. In Nagapattinam, the project is managed by En. A. Rethinam. In Tenkasi, the project is managed by Dr. G. S. Vijaylakshmi.

Nagapattinam Project Cost Sharing by Partners: PepsiCo Foundation’s sponsorship: project management unit cost, awareness, training and uniforms Municipality’s sponsorship: from the MLA Fund Rs 1,00,000 Public (user payment): residents of 3 wards @ Rs 10 each from each household

Tenkasi Project Cost Sharing by Partners: PepsiCo Foundation’s sponsorship: project management unit cost, awareness, training and uniform Public (user payment): residents of 3.